Posts tagged black
Toddlers from low-income Hispanic, American Indian (AI), and Alaskan Native (AN) homes are at increased risk for obesity, according to a new study, Medscape reports.
The federal study, published in the journal Pediatrics, collected weight data for 1.2 million children at ages 0 to 23 months in 2008 and followed up with them within 24 to 35 months in 2010-11. In 2008, 13.3% of children were obese. In 2010-11, 36.5% of those children remained obese and 11% who were not obese at baseline became obese at follow-up.
The Medscape article also highlighted some striking disparities in children’s weight by race/ethnicity:
At baseline, obesity rates were higher among Hispanic and AI/AN toddlers, with 18.0% of AI/AN children obese at baseline compared with 15.3% of Hispanic children, 12.8% of non-Hispanic black children, 11.5% of white children, and 9.5 of Asian/Pacific Island children. In addition, Hispanic and AI/AN children were more likely to remain obese at follow-up at 40.3% and 44.4%,respectively, compared with 34.7% of whites, 33.2% of Asian/Pacific islanders, and 30.5% of non-Hispanic blacks.
AI/AN and Hispanic youngsters were more likely to become obese 24 to 35 months after initial examination. Some 15.4% of AI/AM children became obese at follow-up. Of Hispanic children, 13.6% became obese compared with 9.7% of white children, 9.0% of Asian/Pacific Island children, and 8.7% of black children.
“The needs of Hispanic and AI/AN young children should be considered when designing population-based strategies to support environmental and system change in communities and culturally appropriate interventions,” the the researchers stated in the study’s conclusion.
A tax on soda would carry the greatest health benefits for black and Latino Californians, who face the highest risks of diabetes and heart disease, according to recent research findings, California Watch reports.
According to the news report:
The study found that if a penny-per-ounce tax was applied to soda, cuts in consumption would result in an 8 percent decline in diabetes cases among blacks and Latinos. The statewide reduction in new diabetes cases is projected at 3 to 5.6 percent, according to researchers from UC San Francisco, Columbia University and Oregon State University, who released their findings at a recent American Public Health Association annual meeting.
The study was unveiled as a sugar-sweetened beverage tax faces votes in El Monte, in Los Angeles County, and Richmond, in the Bay Area. A statewide excise tax was proposed but died in the California Legislature in 2010.
Latinos comprise about 64% of residents in Richmond and 70% in El Monte.
A penny-per-ounce tax would cut soda consumption by up to 20 percent, which would help eliminate 5 in 10,000 new diabetes cases for African Americans and 4 in 10,000 for Mexican-Americans, study lead author Dr. Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo told California Watch, although food and beverage spokesperson are quoted as saying that such a tax would hurt small businesses and isn’t proven to improve people’s health.
“It’s pretty clear that what’s necessary is some mechanism to increase price (enough) to curb consumption,” said Bibbins-Domingo.
Parents are concerned about food marketing and the way it impacts their children’s eating habits and would support policies to limit the marketing of unhealthy food and beverages to children, according to a new report from Yale’s Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.
Black and Hispanic parents reported believing that their children saw more food advertising and were more affected by that advertising compared with white parents, the report found. They also perceived more obstacles to ensuring healthy eating habits for their children, and were more supportive of most policies to promote healthy eating habits and limit food marketing.
Black and Hispanic parents, however, did not view the influence of food companies on their children’s eating habits more negatively, the report found.
In fact, because many food companies, including McDonald’s and Coca-Cola, invest significant amounts in targeted marketing to black and Hispanic youth and programs to support black and Hispanic communities, it appears that these programs may be successfully deflecting blame for obesity away from the food companies, according to the report.
“The food industry has responded to parents’ concerns about food marketing with self-regulatory pledges that have produced only small changes,” said Jennifer Harris, lead author and director of marketing initiatives at the Rudd Center. “Parents are becoming more aware of food marketing and they want to start seeing real improvements.”
The study is the first of its kind to assess parents’ attitudes about policies to promote healthy eating, such as nutrition standards for foods sold in schools, as well as policies limiting marketing to children. Researchers conducted an online survey of more than 2,000 parents of children and teens ages 2-17 in 2009, 2010, and 2011. They surveyed parents who participate in decisions about food and beverage choices in their households.
They found that parents overall are just as concerned about advertisements promoting unhealthy foods to children as they are about alcohol and tobacco use in the media.
Parental approval was highest for policies that would set nutrition standards for foods sold in schools (supported by 72-81% of parents) and policies that would promote healthy eating in children’s media (70-73%).
View the full report here.
Editor’s Note: This post is part of an ongoing series that will highlight work of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) in Latino communities.
SaludToday Guest Blogger: Risa Lavizzo-Mourey
President and CEO, RWJF
RWJF and the Trust for America’s Health recently released our annual report, F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America’s Future.
Obesity rates in the United States remain unacceptably high, and the epidemic persists in affecting Blacks and Hispanics disproportionately. For the first time, this year’s report examined how the obesity epidemic could impact our future 20 years from now. Ironically, this forecast has made me reflect on the past.
Thirty years ago, I lived in Philadelphia and was an instructor at Temple University. After a long day teaching, I remember heading home with my daughter, who was a preschooler at the time. My office looked down North Broad Street, which ran through some of the worst urban blight of any American city in the past several decades. We wanted to pick up a few items for dinner, but couldn’t find a grocery store or supermarket with the fresh fruit, produce and other healthy foods we were accustomed to eating. About 20,000 people—mostly poor, mostly African-American and Hispanic—lived in that neighborhood and had to cope with this type of disadvantage on a daily basis. What I didn’t know then was that Philadelphia was a microcosm of how policies and environments affect diets, obesity, and health.
At that time, obesity was not on the radar as a major public health concern, and state obesity rates looked tame compared with what we see today. In 1995, Mississippi had an adult obesity rate of 19.4 percent, and Colorado had the lowest rate, 13.9 percent. According to the latest data, Colorado still has the lowest rate, but it has climbed to 20.7 percent. I don’t think we could have imagined it in 1995, but the lowest rate today is higher than the highest rate back then. That’s why it’s so important for us to look ahead to 2030 and try to chart a better course.
The new analysis in this year’s report shows that if obesity rates continue on their current trajectory, it’s estimated that by 2030 adult obesity rates could reach or exceed 44 percent in every state—and could exceed 60 percent in 13 states. If so, new cases of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, hypertension and arthritis could skyrocket. Obesity-related health care costs could increase by more than 10 percent in 43 states and by more than 20 percent in nine states.
On the other hand, the analysis also shows that if the average adult body mass index (BMI) was decreased by only 5 percent in each state, we could spare millions of Americans from serious health problems and save billions of dollars in health care spending—between 6.5 percent and 7.8 percent in costs in almost every state. By 2030, this could equate to savings ranging from $1.1 billion in Wyoming to $81.7 billion in California.
We have made important progress toward preventing and reducing obesity around the country, especially among children. For instance, California, Mississippi and New York City are beginning to show decreases in overall rates of childhood obesity. The trends in those areas also have shown us that children who face the biggest obstacles to healthy choices and are at greatest risk for obesity do not always benefit when progress is made. I saw the evidence of this first hand when I lived in Philadelphia. That’s why a study released this fall tells the best story of all.
New data show Philadelphia has reduced its obesity rates in ways that also helped to close the disparities gap. While the city achieved an overall decline in obesity rates among public school students, the largest improvements came among Black male and Hispanic female students. For Black males, rates declined nearly 8 percent; rates for Hispanic females dropped 7 percent.
Although the decrease in childhood obesity rates in Philadelphia is a recent development, community-wide efforts started there more than a decade ago. We need to learn from the City of Brotherly Love and spread the actions and policies that work so all children can enjoy the benefits of better health.
I am now a grand mother and want my grandkids, and their entire generation, to be healthy. If we take effective action, many Americans could be spared from type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems, and the savings in health care costs and increased productivity would have a real and positive impact on the economy. Investing in prevention today means a healthier, more productive and brighter future for our country.
Editor’s Note: This post is part of an ongoing series that will highlight the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s work in Latino communities across the country.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) today announced that it is investing $9.5 million in new funding for its Forward Promise initiative, aimed at improving the health and success of young men of color.
The centerpiece of the announcement is a new call for proposals that seeks innovative, community-based projects working to strengthen health, education, and employment outcomes for middle school- and high school-aged boys and young men of color.
“To build a strong and prosperous future for our nation, it is critical that we expand opportunities for boys and young men of color to grow up healthy, get a good education, and find meaningful employment,” said RWJF Program Officer Maisha Simmons. “Their options have been too limited for too long; that’s why we are proud to launch Forward Promise to support young men of color and identify the most promising paths toward a stronger, healthier future.”
Specifically, this initiative will support innovative programs that focus on the following four areas:
- Alternative approaches to harsh school discipline that do not push students out of school;
- Solutions that focus on dropout prevention and increasing middle school retention and high school graduation rates;
- Mental health interventions that tailor approaches to boys and young men who have experienced and/or been exposed to violence and trauma; and
- Career training programs that blend workforce and education emphases to ensure that students are college- and career-ready.
Momentum is building nationally among philanthropists and policy-makers to improve the health and success of young men of color.
Last summer, Mayor Michael Bloomberg and philanthropist George Soros launched their Young Men’s Initiative, a nearly $130 million effort in New York to support young men of color in the areas of education, employment, health, and justice. And the California legislature established a Select Committee on the Status of Boys and Men of Color, which has been holding hearings across the state to identify successful and innovative policies and programs. In June, RWJF hosted a “Gathering of Leaders” in Philadelphia that brought together more than 100 leaders in philanthropy, social service delivery, advocacy, and academia to focus on fundamentally improving circumstances for boys and young men of color.
“While all young people need support on the road to becoming healthy, productive adults, it’s especially true for teenage boys of color,” added Simmons. “We are looking to advance innovative policies and approaches that can dramatically change their prospects to succeed in school, in their communities, in the workplace, and in society.”
RWJF is committing $9.5 million over three years to Forward Promise, which will support grantmaking for community-based projects and initiatives, policy analysis, and convenings to surface the strongest solutions. Under the new call for proposals, RWJF will award up to 10 grants not to exceed $500,000 each. Find more information here.
Forward Promise reflects RWJF’s belief that it is essential to focus on what makes people healthy—or unhealthy—from a perspective that includes factors outside of the medical care system. Social influences rooted in our neighborhoods, housing, schools, jobs, and economic security have a powerful effect on our health. Across most of these areas, however, boys and young men of color often have limited positive options. Education and jobs are a particular concern, with the unemployment rate for Hispanic youth at nearly 30% and for black youth at almost 40%—far higher than that of white youth, according to federal statistics.
America’s prosperity depends on giving every young person a fair chance to thrive and succeed. It is RWJF’s belief that we are moving forward the promise that we have made to our young men, who represent the nation’s future. It’s a future where young men of color must have the opportunity to become healthy adults who contribute to their communities and society.
U.S. adults rate “not enough exercise” at the top of the list of top health problems for children in their communities, according to the sixth annual survey of top health concerns conducted by the University of Michigan C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health.
Other top overall health concerns include childhood obesity, smoking, drug abuse and bullying.
Hispanic adults were more likely to rate childhood obesity first, followed by “not enough exercise.” Hispanics also rated drug abuse higher than smoking and tobacco use.
Hispanic and black adults both identified sexually transmitted infections as a greater concern for kids in their communities than did white adults.
Despite these differences, Hispanic, black and white adults agreed that “not enough exercise” and obesity are two of the top three most pressing health concerns for kids in their communities. Other concerns that made the top 10 in all three groups included drug abuse, smoking and tobacco use, bullying, and teen pregnancy.
The prevalence of obesity in the U.S. largely leveled off over the last decade, even as some individual groups, such as boys from ages 6 to 19, saw increases, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Bloomberg reports.
Obesity rates in adults rose slightly to 35.7% from 30.5% between 1999 and 2010, compared with rates that nearly doubled the two previous decades.
Overall, a third of the population—78 million adults and 12.5 million children—were obese in 2009- 2010.
According to the story:
“The fact that prevalence rates are reaching a plateau is good news, but by no means are we at the end of the epidemic,” said David Ludwig, a pediatric endocrinologist and director of the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center at Children’s Hospital Boston. “Unless we see declining rates of obesity the impact on society will continue to mount for many years to come. The plateau is at an unacceptably high level.”
Also, a Medscape report form the same study indicates that racial differences also were striking.
Black and Hispanic children and adolescents had higher obesity rates (24.3% and 21.2%) than white children (14%).
Texas’ severe shortage of mental health professionals is compounded by a disparity in diagnosing and treating the state’s rapidly growing Latino and other minority communities, the Texas Tribune reports.
The report indicates that 64% of all psychiatrists were white, 3.5% were black, and 12.4% were Hispanic in 2009.
Watch this captivating video to see more about this issue.
Children and teens—especially Hispanics—are exposed to a substantial amount of marketing for sugary drinks, such as full-calorie sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks and fruit drinks, according to a new report from the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.
The report indicates that sugary beverages are specifically targeting Hispanic and black youth:
- Beverage companies have indicated that they view Hispanics and blacks as a source of future growth for sugary drink product sales.
- Marketing on Spanish TV is growing. From 2008 to 2010, Hispanic children saw 49% more ads for sugary drinks and energy drinks, and teens saw 99% more ads.
- Hispanic preschoolers saw more ads for Coca-Cola Classic, Kool-Aid, 7 Up and Sunny D than Hispanic older children and teens did.
The report recommends ways that parents can make a difference, as well as indicates that beverage companies must change their harmful marketing practices.
Get the full report here.
Black children were four times more likely and Hispanic children slightly more likely than white children to be hospitalized for a severe asthma attack in 2007, according to the latest News and Numbers from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
For every 100,000 children ages 2-17 hospitalized for asthma attacks, the federal agency’s data show that: 384 were black, 94 were white, and 135 were Hispanic.
Asian and Pacific Islander children were the least likely to need inpatient hospital care for asthma (78).
Also, children from poor families were more than twice as likely as those from high-income families to be admitted, (231 versus 102).